IBD (Crohn’s disease, ulcerative and other colitis) continue to be a common cause of morbidity which impact on the child’s quality of life. Crohn's disease tends to present in older children and young adults, with another peak incidence in the fifties to seventies, although the disease can occur at any age.[1,2] Crohn's disease affects between 400,000 to 600,000 people in North America. Prevalence estimated for Northern Europe have ranged from 27–48 per 100,000. Ulcerative colitis occurs in 35–100 people in every 100,000 in the United States.[5,6]
A significant proportion of critically ill children admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) present with nutritional deficiencies. Undernourished hospitalised patients have a higher rate of complications, increased mortality, longer length of hospital stay, and increased hospital costs.
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a defect in the structure of the heart and its large blood vessels which is present at birth. Growth in children with congenital heart disease is often compromised. Cardiac malformations are responsible for undernutrition, which may range from mild undernutrition to severe failure to thrive. Undernutrition may then significantly undermine the outcome of corrective surgical operations and postoperative recovery.
Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is the consequence of massive small-bowel resection resulting in severe nutrient malabsorption that occurs due to loss of mucosal surface area. It is seen after surgical intervention for long-segment necrotising enterocolitis, mitgut volvulus, acute ischemic injury, small-bowel aganglionosis and other conditions involving the small bowel.